Answer 3 Hungarian Hemp-seed
3. Hungarian strains to use and their prices:
Hungarian fiber Hemp cultivars originate from the GATE Fleischmann Rudolf Agricultural Research Institute (see Hemp-seed Suppliers for address). GATEs activity with respect to fiber Hemp is mainly restricted to maintenance of the existing cultivars. However, through an agreement with Hempflax B.V. (Netherlands, see answer 14 for complete address), creative breeding has been resumed to create an early maturing dioecious cultivar for Western-Europe. Hungarian cultivars are mostly dioecious and used for production of rope and technical fabrics i.e. fiber. Seeds from the cultivars listed below, except Kompolti Sárgászarú, are readily commercially available from the company Fibro-Seed (which can be reached through the GATE institute see below). 1995 price was approximately US$3.50/kg = US$1.75/pound.
Prof. Dr. Iván Bócsas letter to HempCyberFarm on February 8, 1996: Prices range from 3,5 and 4,0 S/kg, the Hemp-seed should be ordered by fax in advance until March 10, then our Ltd. Fibro-Seed will set up a contract with you. (I assume that the S in S/kg is the national currency of Hungary.)
Prof. Dr. Iván Bócsas letter to HempCyberFarm on February 19, 1997: In our institute there are five registered hemp varieties:
Seed of Kompolti, Unico-B and Kompolti Hybrid TC is available, but previous order is needed. Usually we are able to satisfy orders received until March 15th. So seed demands for sowing in 1998 we can satisfy until March 1997.
Price of 1 kg seed moves from US$3 to $4
Mentioned varieties are diecious hence they are suitable for fiber production only. Their stem yield is between 10 and 13 t/ha, which means the highest production from among European varieties. All three varieties have high fiber content too (about 30%). The THC content is below EU limit of 0.3%
We are also searching for capital to be invested into patent on weaving Hemp clothes our textile specialist work out. This cloth material is not pure Hemp. Hemp fiber is mixed with viscose, woolen yarn of cotton. Mixing like this makes the wearing more easy.
We will have internet very soon. Many thanks in advance for your help. Prof. Dr. Iván Bócsa
Thank you Prof. Iván Bócsa at GATE Fleischmann Rudolf Agricultural Research Institute.
Kompolti has been selected for high fiber content from Fleischmann Hemp or F-Hemp which is from Italian origin. It was registered in 1954. To make it eligible for EU subsidy it was submitted in 1995 for registration in the Netherlands, by Hemcore Ltd., as well as in Austria, by Raifaisen Waren Austria (RWA). Breeders: Iván Bócsa, József Schmidt, GATE Experimental Station, Kompolt. Variety maintainer: GATE Agricultural Research Institute, Kompolt. Origin: Fleischmann-Hemp population. Variety description: The oldest dioecious variety registered in Europe, nevertheless its properties met the recent demands of cultivation. It has fine and light colored leaves and stem, which is moderately ribbed. Top of shoots are wine-red. The vegetation period is 110-115 days from germination if it is cultivated for fiber. This variety achieves its ripeness in 150-160 days if cultivated for seed. Agricultural value: Kompolti has great stem productivity (11-12 tons/ha) and also great fiber content (31-35%). The fiber yield is among the biggest in Europe. Fiber fineness and strength are average. THC content is very low; 0.1-0.2%. Cultivation suggestions: Most suitable soils for this variety are alluvial and chernozem type soils. Yield is increased when using nitrogen fertilizers but overdose decreases the quality. High yield and good quality can be achieved by proper population density, sowing 3.5-4 million seeds/ha.
The chlorophyll-deficient yellow-stemmed Kompolti Sárgászarú was registered in 1974, but is however not currently cultivated. It was obtained from a cross between a spontaneous yellow-stemmed mutant from Germany (Helle Stengel-Hoffmann, found in the offspring of a cross between Finnish early and Italian late Hemp) and Kompolti, which was repeatedly back-crossed with Kompolti. Small seed quantities of Kompolti Sárgászarú are available for research purposes.
Hungary is the only country where heterosis breeding of Hemp became implemented. This resulted in several F1 hybrid cultivars. A single cross hybrid cultivar is Uniko-B (registered in 1969). It is a hybrid progeny of Kompolti x Fibrimon 21, where the monoecious Fibrimon 21 acts as a pollen spender. The F1, being almost unisexual female, is used to produce an F2, containing approximately 30% males, which is cultivated for fiber. Uniko-B was recently submitted for registration in Austria by RWA. Breeders: Iván Bócsa, József Schmidt, GATE Experimental Station, Kompolt. Variety maintainer: GATE Agricultural Research Institute, Kompolt. Origin: Hybrid of Kompolti dioecious and Fibrimon monoecious Hemp. Variety description: Stem and leaves are fine. Plant height is similar to Kompolti's height. The only difference from other varieties is the male/female ratio. Females are dominant in the F1 generation, and partly dominant in the F2 generation. Presence of monoecious plants in F1 generation is common. Seed form and thousand kernel weight of F1 generation is the same as in the case of Kompolti hemp as it is for the maternal variety. In the F2 population seeds of lower thousand kernal weight and marble pattern can be found in the fraction of monoecious plants. The vegetation period of a variety cultivated for fiber is about 110 days from germination. Uniko-B has high seed production capacity in F1 generation, because of the dominance of female plants and the F2 generation can be used only for fiber production. Agricultural value. Uniko-Bs stem yield is very good (10-11 tons/ha), its industrial value i.e. fiber content and the ratio of primary fiber is also good. Fiber content is about 28-31%. Fiber fineness and tensile strength are average. THC content is under 0.3%.
Kompolti Hybrid TC (registered in 1983) is a three-way-cross hybrid in which two selections from Chinese origin, Kinai Kétlaki (dioecious) and Kinai Egylaki (monoecious), and Kompolti are combined. The first step of the crossing (Kinai dioecious x Kinai monoecious) where the monoecious parent acts as pollen spender, gives a unisexual, almost pure female F1, called Kinai Uniszex. This unisexual progeny can be considered as an analogue for male sterile breeding lines. It is subsequently used as a female parent in the crossing (Kinai Uniszex x Kompolti) which produces the commercial three-way-cross hybrid Kompolti Hybrid TC, which has again a 50/50 sex ratio.
Fibriko (registered 1989) is the most recent Hungarian hybrid. It results from a three-way-cross for which Kinai dioecious and Kinai monoecious are first crossed to produce the unisexual female progeny Kinai Uniszex, which is subsequently crossed with the yellow-stemmed pollen spender Kompolti Sárgászarú. However, Fibriko is not yellow-stemmed, as the normal green stem (from Kinai Uniszex) dominates over yellow.
The dioecious Hungarian cultivar Kompolti was used at 50kg/ha in a trial setup in Tasmania, Australia. Harvested approximately 4 months later, the yield averaged 7.5 ton/ha. If better adapted (i.e. later flowering) varieties were used, yields of 10 to 12 ton/ha of stem dry matter could probably be obtained in Tasmania.
This information is from Eric Steenstra at Ecolution:
Thanks for your contribution Erik.
*Industrial-Hemp has no psychoactive properties following definition of the European Economic Community (EEC); THC content is less than 0.3%. In general, low THC-seed varieties without psychoactive properties are those that have a THC content of less than 1%. (See also No-THC Hemp-seed.) THC= Delta-9 TetraHydroCannabinol.
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